Echuya forest lies between 1º14'- 1º21' S and 29º47'-29º52'. It lies at the heart of the biodiversity rich Albertine rift eco-region and is a site of global biodiversity importance and hence is categorised by BirdLife as an important Bird Area because of the high diversity of bird species especially the globally threatened and high endemism levels. Echuya Forest Reserve is a montane rainforest of c.3403ha extent surrounding a c.7km long, 700 ha, high altitude Muchuya swamp that is a home to the globally threatened and albertine endemic Grauers Swamp warbler.
The forest has about 137 species of birds, including 10 Albertine rift endemics and a significant population of the globally threatened Grauers Swamp Warbler. The forest lies between 2 north-south aligned ridges, with its eastern and western borders lieing essentially on the ridge tops and falling down steep sides into Muchuya swamp in the valley between. It ranges in altitude between 2,270 & 2,570 m.a.s.l. The forest is dominated by mature hagenia-rapenia comprising c.80% of the forest cover with a declining but significant mountain bamboo (arundinaria alpina) component, c.20% of the forest cover. Muchuya swamp is dominated by the sedge species Pycreus nigricans, with tree heather (Erica kingaensis), giant lobelia (lobelia mildbraedii) and red hot-pokers (kniphophia species) also notably common species.